The diagnosis is clinical.
The treatment is educational.
The understanding is scientific.
Margaret Byrd Rawson, 1982
Dyslexia presents with different degrees of severity and is often accompanied by unique strengths and talents.
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Annals of Dyslexia, 2003 (53)
- Sometimes confuses letters, sounds and words: b/d, p/q, was/saw, on/no
- Difficulty learning that letters make sounds and that those sounds are sequenced into words
- Difficulty blending sounds into words
- Inefficient decoding of sounds and words leading to difficulty in reading comprehension
Writing and Spelling
- Difficulty hearing syllables within words and phonemes (sounds) within syllables
- Difficulty visualizing the correct spelling of words
- Does not seem to understand spelling rules or sentence structure
- May have had difficulty learning to talk
- May have had difficulty listening and following directions
- May have difficulty remembering words
- May have difficulty rhyming
- May have difficulty sequencing: saying the alphabet, the days of the week, months of the year, counting or understanding concepts such as left/right
(Ten in Every Hundred, The International Dyslexia Assocation, 2005)