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Margaret Byrd Rawson, 1982

The diagnosis is clinical.
The treatment is educational.
The understanding is scientific. ~M. Rawson

Dyslexia presents with different degrees of severity and is often accompanied by unique strengths and talents. 



Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. 

Annals of Dyslexia, 2003 (53)




Sometimes confuses letters, sounds and words: b/d, p/q, was/saw, on/no
Difficulty learning that letters make sounds and that those sounds are sequenced into words
Difficulty blending sounds into words
Inefficient decoding of sounds and words leading to difficulty in reading comprehension

Writing and Spelling

Difficulty hearing syllables within words and phonemes (sounds) within syllables
Difficulty visualizing the correct spelling of words
Does not seem to understand spelling rules or sentence structure


May have had difficulty learning to talk
May have had difficulty listening and following directions
May have difficulty remembering words
May have difficulty rhyming
May have difficulty sequencing: saying the alphabet, the days of the week, months of the year, counting or understanding concepts such as left/right
(Ten in Every Hundred, The International Dyslexia Assocation, 2005)

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